Vitellogenin: a review of analytical methods to detect (anti) estrogenic activity in fish

Toxicol Mech Methods. 2005;15(4):293-306. doi: 10.1080/15376520590968789.


Vitellogenin, the fish egg yolk precursor protein, is the most common biochemical endpoint in general use for the detection of (anti) estrogen active substances in fish and other oviparous species. This review aims to cover the major methods (both protein and nucleic acid) for vitellogenin determination. Comparisons are drawn between vitellogenin and other endpoint effect levels. This review highlights strengths and weaknesses of the various techniques, concentrating on practical considerations and problems in evaluating the data they generate.