Aims: To summarize current knowledge on the etiology, assessment, and management of urinary incontinence (UI) in frail older persons. "Frail" here indicates a person with a clinical phenotype combining impaired physical activity, mobility, muscle strength, cognition, nutrition, and endurance, associated with being homebound or in care institutions and a high risk of intercurrent disease, disability, and death.
Methods: Revision of 3rd ICI report using systematic review covering years 2004-2008.
Results: We focus on the etiologic, management, and treatment implications of the key concept that UI in frail persons constitutes a syndromic model with multiple interacting risk factors, including age-related physiologic changes, comorbidity, and the common pathways between them. We present new findings with evidence summaries based on all previous data, and an evidence-based algorithm for evaluation and management of UI in frail elderly. We also present new evidence and summarize the data on etiology and management of nocturia and urinary retention in frail elderly.
Conclusions: Despite the overwhelming burden of UI among this population, there remains a continuing paucity of new clinical trials in frail elderly, limiting evidence for the effectiveness of the full range of UI therapy. Future research is needed on current UI treatments (especially models of care delivery, and pharmacologic and surgical therapies), novel management approaches, and the etiologic mechanisms and pathways of the syndromic model.