Panky, a novel photoreceptor-specific ankyrin repeat protein, is a transcriptional cofactor that suppresses CRX-regulated photoreceptor genes

FEBS Lett. 2010 Feb 19;584(4):753-8. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.12.030. Epub 2009 Dec 22.


Neuronal gene transcription is regulated by both transcriptional activators and repressors. While the roles of transactivators in retinal photoreceptor development have been well characterized, the roles of repressors have been poorly understood. We isolated Panky/Ankrd33, a gene encoding an ankyrin repeat-containing protein. Panky-A was specifically expressed in retinal photoreceptors and the pineal gland, and its expression was directly up-regulated by the CRX transcription factor. Subcellular localization of PANKY-A was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Additionally, transactivation analysis suggested that PANKY-A is a transcriptional cofactor that suppresses CRX-activated photoreceptor genes. Furthermore, we found by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay that PANKY inhibited the DNA-binding activity of CRX.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Ankyrin Repeat*
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • DNA, Complementary / isolation & purification
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeodomain Proteins / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism*
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / cytology
  • Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate / metabolism
  • Phylogeny
  • Repressor Proteins / classification
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / metabolism*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Trans-Activators / genetics
  • Trans-Activators / metabolism*
  • Transcription Factors / classification
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • cone rod homeobox protein
  • panky protein, mouse