The measurement of inflammation by biomarkers not only documents clinically relevant infections but also offers an important tool to pin point potentially harmful effects of chronic psychosocial stressors. This article focuses firstly on basic biology of inflammation and lists main biomarkers currently used in psycho-physiologic research. In the second part, the effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system as pathways modulating stress-related inflammation are discussed. Furthermore, current evidence of how chronic psychosocial stressors are related to alterations in inflammatory activity is presented. In summary, job stress, low socioeconomic status, childhood adversities as well as life events, caregiver stress, and loneliness were all shown to exert effects on immunologic activity.