Puberty in mammals is associated with important physical and psychological changes due to the increase in sex steroids and growth hormone (GH). Indeed, an increase in growth velocity and the attainment of sexual maturity for future reproductive function are the hallmark changes during this stage of life. Both growth and reproduction consume high levels of energy, requiring suitable energy stores to face these physiological functions. During the last two decades our knowledge concerning how peptides produced in the digestive tract (in charge of energy intake) and in adipose tissue (in charge of energy storage) provide information regarding metabolic status to the central nervous system (CNS) has increased dramatically. Moreover, these peptides have been shown to play an important role in modulating the gonadotropic axis with their absence or an imbalance in their secretion being able to disturb pubertal onset or progression. In this article we will review the current knowledge concerning the role played by leptin, the key adipokine in energy homeostasis, and ghrelin, the only orexigenic and growth-promoting peptide produced by the digestive tract, on sexual development. The normal evolutionary pattern of these peripherally produced metabolic signals throughout human puberty will be summarized. The effect of two opposite situations of chronic malnutrition, obesity and anorexia, on these signals and how they influence the course of puberty will also be discussed. Finally, we will briefly mention other peptides derived from the digestive tract (such as PYY) that may be involved in the regulatory link between energy homeostasis and sexual development.
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