Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure the dose reduction achieved with dynamically adjustable z-axis collimation.
Materials and methods: A commercial CT system was used to acquire CT scans with and without dynamic z-axis collimation. Dose reduction was measured as a function of pitch, scan length, and position for total incident radiation in air at isocenter, accumulated dose to the center of the scan volume, and accumulated dose to a point at varying distances from a scan volume of fixed length. Image noise was measured at the beginning and center of the scan.
Results: The reduction in total incident radiation in air at isocenter varied between 27% and 3% (pitch, 0.5) and 46% and 8% (pitch, 1.5) for scan lengths of 20 and 500 mm, respectively. Reductions in accumulated dose to the center of the scan were 15% and 29% for pitches of 0.5 and 1.5 for 20-mm scans. For scan lengths greater than 300 mm, dose savings were less than 3% for all pitches. Dose reductions 80 mm or farther from a 100-mm scan range were 15% and 40% for pitches of 0.5 and 1.5. With dynamic z-axis collimation, noise at the extremes of a helical scan was unchanged relative to noise at the center. Estimated reductions in effective dose were 16% (0.4 mSv) for the head, 10% (0.8 and 1.4 mSv) for the chest and liver, 6% (0.8 mSv) for the abdomen and pelvis, and 4% (0.4 mSv) and 55% (1.0 mSv) for coronary CT angiography at pitches of 0.2 and 3.4.
Conclusion: Use of dynamic z-axis collimation reduces dose in helical CT by minimizing overscanning. Percentage dose reductions are larger for shorter scan lengths and greater pitch values.