The metabolic syndrome: validity and utility of clinical definitions for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk prediction

Maturitas. 2010 Feb;65(2):117-21. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2009.11.026. Epub 2009 Dec 23.


The purpose of clinical definitions of the metabolic syndrome is frequently misunderstood. While the metabolic syndrome as a physiological process describes a clustering of numerous age-related metabolic abnormalities that together increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, clinical definitions include obesity which is thought to be a cause rather than a consequence of metabolic disturbance, and several elements that are routinely measured in clinical practice, including high blood pressure, high blood glucose and dyslipidaemia. Obesity is frequently a central player in the development of the metabolic syndrome and should be considered a key component of clinical definitions. Previous clinical definitions have differed in the priority given to obesity. Perhaps more importantly than its role in a clinical definition, however, is obesity in isolation before the hallmarks of metabolic dysfunction that typify the syndrome have developed. This should be treated seriously as an opportunity to prevent the consequences of the global diabetes epidemic now apparent. Clinical definitions were designed to identify a population at high lifetime CVD and type 2 diabetes risk, but in the absence of several major risk factors for each condition, are not optimal risk prediction devices for either. Despite this, the metabolic syndrome has several properties that make it a useful construct, in conjunction with short-term risk prediction algorithms and sound clinical judgement, for the identification of those at high lifetime risk of CVD and diabetes. A recently published consensus definition provides some much needed clarity about what a clinical definition entails. Even this, however, remains a work in progress until more evidence becomes available, particularly in the area of ethnicity-specific waist cut-points.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Syndrome* / etiology
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers