Research on eukaryotic cytokinesis using advantageous model systems is rapidly advancing our understanding of most aspects of the process. Cytokinesis is very complicated with more than 100 proteins participating. Both fungi and animal cells use proteins to mark the cleavage site for the assembly of a contractile ring of actin filaments and myosin-II. Formins nucleate and elongate the actin filaments and myosin-II helps to organize the filaments into a contractile ring. Much is still to be learned about the organization of the contractile ring and the mechanisms that disassemble the ring as it constricts. Although fungi and animals share many proteins that contribute to cytokinesis, the extent to which they share mechanisms for the location, assembly, constriction, and disassembly of their contractile rings is still in question.
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