Microtubules are highly dynamic structures whose regulation is crucial for cell division, cell polarity, cell migration, or neuronal differentiation. Because they contribute to most cellular functions, they must be regulated in response to extracellular and intracellular signals. The parameters of microtubule dynamics are numerous and complex and the connection between signaling pathways and regulation of microtubule dynamics remain obscure. Recent observations reveal key players that can both integrate the diversity of signaling cascades and directly influence microtubule dynamics. I review here how modifications of the tubulin dimer, tubulin modifying enzymes, and microtubule-associated proteins are directly involved in the regulation of microtubule behavior and functions.
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