Molecular imaging is the visualization, characterization and measurement of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. In oncology, molecular imaging approaches can be directly applied as translational biomarkers of disease progression. In this article, selected imaging modalities are discussed with respect to this role. Recent studies focusing on emerging imaging biomarkers and new developments in the field are highlighted. Importantly, because ex vivo or tissue-based imaging now represents an important tool in the discovery and validation of oncology biomarkers, special attention is given to this resurgent field.
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