Imbalance of oxidative/anti-oxidative status induced by periodontitis is involved in apoptosis of rat submandibular glands

Arch Oral Biol. 2010 Feb;55(2):170-6. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2009.11.013. Epub 2009 Dec 24.


Objective: Epidemiologic studies suggest a relationship between periodontitis and salivary gland dysfunction. A rat periodontitis model was used to investigate whether a causal relationship exists between periodontitis and pathological changes of submandibular glands.

Design: Fourteen male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were divided into two groups (n=7/group): a control group and periodontitis group. Periodontitis was induced by ligature placement around the mandibular first molars. Serum levels for reactive oxygen metabolites, anti-oxidant and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks. At 4 weeks, the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were determined to evaluate oxidative damage of submandibular glands. Expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) as well as histological findings were also evaluated in the submandibular glands.

Results: The rats with experimental periodontitis showed increase in the levels of serum reactive oxygen metabolites and TNF-alpha, and a decrease of anti-oxidant power in a time-dependent manner. At 4 weeks, these rats also had significantly increased levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and TNF-alpha, and increased number of TUNEL-positive cells and vacuolisation in the submandibular glands compared to the control rats.

Conclusions: Imbalance of circulating oxidative/anti-oxidative status may be involved in vacuolisation and apoptosis of submandibular glands in the rat periodontitis model.

MeSH terms

  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Apoptosis*
  • Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxyguanosine / metabolism
  • In Situ Nick-End Labeling
  • Ligation
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Periodontitis / metabolism*
  • Periodontitis / pathology
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / blood
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Submandibular Gland / metabolism*
  • Submandibular Gland / pathology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood


  • Antioxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Deoxyguanosine