Fullerene-C60/liposome complex: Defensive effects against UVA-induced damages in skin structure, nucleus and collagen type I/IV fibrils, and the permeability into human skin tissue

J Photochem Photobiol B. 2010 Jan 21;98(1):99-105. doi: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2009.11.010. Epub 2009 Dec 2.


We previously reported biological safety of fullerene-C60 (C60) incorporated in liposome consisting of hydrogenated lecithin and glycine soja sterol, as Liposome-Fullerene (0.5% aqueous phase; a particle size, 76nm; Lpsm-Flln), and its cytoprotective activity against UVA. In the present study, Lpsm-Flln was administered on the surface of three-dimensional human skin tissue model, rinsed out before each UVA-irradiation at 4 J/cm(2), and thereafter added again, followed by 19-cycle-repetition for 4 days (sum: 76 J/cm(2)). UVA-caused corneum scaling and disruption of epidermis layer were detected by scanning electron microscopy. Breakdown of collagen type I/IV, DNA strand cleavage and pycnosis/karyorrhexis were observed in vertical cross-sections of UVA-irradiated skin models visualized with fluorescent immunostain or Hoechst 33342 stain. These skin damages were scarcely repressed by liposome alone, but appreciably repressed by Lpsm-Flln of 250 ppm, containing 0.75 ppm of C60-equivalent to a 1/3300-weight amount vs. the whole liposome. Upon administration with Lpsm-Flln [16.7 microM (12 ppm): C60-equivalent] on human abdomen skin biopsies mounted in Franz diffusion cells, C60 permeated after 24h into the epidermis at 1.86 nmol/g tissue (1.34 ppm), corresponding to 0.3% of the applied amount and a 9.0-fold dilution rate, but C60 was not detected in the dermis by HPLC, suggesting no necessity for considering a toxicity of C60 due to systemic circulation via dermal veins. Thus Lpsm-Flln has a potential to be safely utilized as a cosmetic anti-oxidative ingredient for UVA-protection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cell Culture Techniques
  • Cell Membrane Permeability / drug effects
  • Cell Membrane Permeability / radiation effects
  • Cell Nucleus / drug effects
  • Cell Nucleus / radiation effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Collagen Type I / drug effects
  • Collagen Type I / radiation effects
  • Collagen Type IV / drug effects
  • Collagen Type IV / radiation effects
  • Cytoprotection
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Fullerenes / administration & dosage
  • Fullerenes / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Liposomes / chemistry
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Skin / drug effects*
  • Skin / radiation effects
  • Ultraviolet Rays*


  • Collagen Type I
  • Collagen Type IV
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Fullerenes
  • Liposomes
  • fullerene C60