Objective: To evaluate the health benefits of an exclusively human milk-based diet compared with a diet of both human milk and bovine milk-based products in extremely premature infants.
Study design: Infants fed their own mothers' milk were randomized to 1 of 3 study groups. Groups HM100 and HM40 received pasteurized donor human milk-based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 and 40 mL/kg/d, respectively, and both groups received pasteurized donor human milk if no mother's milk was available. Group BOV received bovine milk-based human milk fortifier when the enteral intake was 100 mL/kg/d and preterm formula if no mother's milk was available. Outcomes included duration of parenteral nutrition, morbidity, and growth.
Results: The 3 groups (total n = 207 infants) had similar baseline demographic variables, duration of parenteral nutrition, rates of late-onset sepsis, and growth. The groups receiving an exclusively human milk diet had significantly lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC; P = .02) and NEC requiring surgical intervention (P = .007).
Conclusions: For extremely premature infants, an exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with significantly lower rates of NEC and surgical NEC when compared with a mother's milk-based diet that also includes bovine milk-based products.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00506584.
Copyright 2010 AUR. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.