Clinical biomarkers and management of post thrombotic syndrome

Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2010 Jan 1;2:771-8. doi: 10.2741/e137.


The post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a long-term complication of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that is characterized by chronic, persistent pain, swelling and other signs in the affected limb. PTS is common, burdensome and costly. It is likely to increase in prevalence, since despite widespread use of and improvements in the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of DVT has not decreased over time. Preventing ipsilateral recurrence of DVT, by ensuring an adequate duration and intensity of anticoagulation for the initial DVT and by prescribing situational thromboprophylaxis after discontinuation of oral anticoagulants, is likely to reduce the risk of developing PTS. Pending the results of ongoing studies, stockings are recommended in patients with persistent symptoms or swelling after DVT. Future research should focus on standardizing criteria for PTS diagnosis, identification of DVT patients at high risk for PTS, and rigorously evaluating the effectiveness of stockings, thrombolysis, and venoactive drugs in preventing or treating PTS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Biomarkers*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products / analysis
  • Humans
  • Postthrombotic Syndrome / diagnosis*
  • Postthrombotic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Postthrombotic Syndrome / etiology
  • Postthrombotic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Postthrombotic Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Venous Thrombosis / complications*


  • Biomarkers
  • Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products
  • fibrin fragment D