It is well recognized that animals play a vital role and are indispensable to scientific and medical research. Over the years, a number of non-animal procedures have been developed. However, despite all the advances in science, as yet, no system has been evolved which can completely replace a living system to conduct basic research. There is still a need to test food, drugs, medical devices, treatment regimes etc. on some animals before they can be tested and used (if found suitable) in human beings. Even the most sophisticated technology models have failed to mimic completely the complex cellular interactions occurring in a living system. The search for a complete alternative to animal research is still on and in the mean time we can all help play our part by conducting animal research in a humane and responsible fashion. This chapter discusses the ethical issues in animal research highlighting the need to use animals conscientiously.