Biomarkers of myocardial injury after cardiac arrest or myocardial ischemia

Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2010 Jan 1;2:373-91. doi: 10.2741/s71.


Outcomes of victims of cardiac arrest or acute myocardial ischemic events have improved with advances in medical therapy. Heart failure, however, remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after these conditions have occurred. Clinical features may be useful for predicting patients who are at risk of developing such complications, but they lack of sensitivity and specificity. Biomarkers have been therefore suggested as means to provide relevant prognostic information. The more commonly used biomarkers after cardiovascular ischemic events, including cardiac arrest, are creatin kinases and troponins. In addition, natriuretic peptides and C-reactive protein have gained great interest and now sufficient data has been collected such to justify their clinical applicability. Finally, several other novel biomarkers, to be used after resuscitation from cardiac arrest or more generally after a myocardial ischemic event, have been anticipated. Nevertheless, the "perfect" biomarker, able to provide diagnosis and prognosis with high sensitivity and specificity does not exit. A multimarker strategy that categorizes patients based on the number of elevated biomarkers at presentation is therefore suggested.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenomedullin / metabolism
  • Arginine Vasopressin / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / methods
  • Creatine Kinase / metabolism
  • Endothelin-1 / metabolism
  • Heart Arrest / complications*
  • Heart Failure / diagnosis*
  • Heart Failure / etiology
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / physiology*
  • Myocardial Ischemia / complications*
  • Myocardial Ischemia / immunology
  • Natriuretic Peptides / metabolism
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component / metabolism
  • Troponin / metabolism


  • Biomarkers
  • Endothelin-1
  • Natriuretic Peptides
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component
  • Troponin
  • Arginine Vasopressin
  • Adrenomedullin
  • PTX3 protein
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Creatine Kinase