Dilated cardiomypathies (DCM) are characterized by dilatation and pump dysfunction of the heart. DCM has an incidence of 6/100.000 people a year contributing to a considerable number of cases of heart failure. Although etiology and pathogenesis are known to be multifactorial, they remain mostly unidentified. Recent research identified patients affected with DCM with altered gene products. These alterations can roughly be grouped into causative genes, mostly coding for cytoskeletal proteins. Other genes seem to be activated after the disease onset and are able to influence the clinical course. In this study we systematically analyzed the role of genetic polymorphisms, based on peer-reviewed articles, published in scientific journals. A total of 97 original studies and a selected number of 60 genes, that seem to be related to DCM, have been reviewed.