Pneumoperitoneum is usually the result of hollow viscus perforation with associated peritonitis. Nonsurgical spontaneous pneumoperitoneum incidental to intrathoracic, intra-abdominal, gynecologic, iatrogenic, and other miscellaneous causes not associated with perforated viscus have been documented in the literature. Seven cases of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum admitted over 3-year period to Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia are reported. Six patients with pneumoperitoneum underwent exploratory laparotomy when clinical examination suggested an acute abdomen; no intra-abdominal pathology was documented in any of these patients. A seventh patient, on ventilatory support, was managed conservatively after performing a diagnostic peritoneal lavage that was negative. There were no cases of radiographically misdiagnosed pneumoperitoneum. Pneumoperitoneum, preceded by a reasonable incidental cause in a patient with a adequate abdominal examination, may warrant continued observation thus avoiding an unnecessary laparotomy.