Evaluation of the efficacy and cross-protectivity of recent human and swine vaccines against the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus infection

PLoS One. 2009 Dec 23;4(12):e8431. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008431.


The current pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus remains transmissible among humans worldwide with cases of reverse zoonosis, providing opportunities to produce more pathogenic variants which could pose greater human health concerns. To investigate whether recent seasonal human or swine H1N1 vaccines could induce cross-reactive immune responses against infection with the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, mice, ferrets or mini-pigs were administered with various regimens (once or twice) and antigen content (1.77, 3.5 or 7.5 microg HA) of a-Brsibane/59/07, a-CAN01/04 or RgCA/04/09xPR8 vaccine. Receipt of a-CAN01/04 (2-doses) but not a-Brisbane/59/07 induced detectable but modest (20-40 units) cross-reactive serum antibody against CA/04/09 by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assays in mice. Only double administration (7.5 microg HA) of both vaccine in ferrets could elicit cross-reactivity (30-60 HI titers). Similar antigen content of a-CAN01/04 in mini-pigs also caused a modest approximately 30 HI titers (twice vaccinated). However, vaccine-induced antibody titers could not suppress active virus replication in the lungs (mice) or virus shedding (ferrets and pigs) of immunized hosts intranasally challenged with CA/04/09. Furthermore, neither ferrets nor swine could abrogate aerosol transmission of the virus into naïve contact animals. Altogether, these results suggest that neither recent human nor animal H1N1 vaccine could provide complete protectivity in all animal models. Thus, this study warrants the need for strain-specific vaccines that could yield the optimal protection desired for humans and/or animals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation / immunology
  • Body Temperature
  • Cross Protection / immunology*
  • Disease Outbreaks / prevention & control*
  • Ferrets / immunology
  • Ferrets / virology
  • Hemagglutinins / immunology
  • Humans
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / genetics
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Influenza, Human / epidemiology*
  • Influenza, Human / prevention & control*
  • Influenza, Human / virology
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung / virology
  • Mice
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / epidemiology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Phylogeny
  • Seasons
  • Swine / immunology*
  • Swine / virology
  • Swine, Miniature / immunology
  • Swine, Miniature / virology
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vaccination
  • Viral Load


  • Hemagglutinins
  • Influenza Vaccines