Evaluation of the efficacy of a canine influenza virus (H3N8) vaccine in dogs following experimental challenge

Vet Ther. 2009 Fall;10(3):103-12.


Canine influenza virus (CIV) subtype H3N8 is an emerging pathogen with sustained horizontal transmission in the dog population in the United States. This study evaluated the efficacy of an inactivated CIV vaccine in 6- to 8-week-old beagle pups challenged with virulent CIV. One group of CIV-seronegative pups was vaccinated with two doses of a CIV vaccine 3 weeks apart; a second group of pups received adjuvanted placebo as a control. Blood samples were collected at various times to determine antibody titers. All pups were challenged with a virulent CIV isolate 13 days after the second vaccination and monitored for clinical signs of respiratory disease, virus shedding, and lung consolidation. Vaccinated pups developed hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers after vaccination. The severity of clinical signs (P < .001) and the magnitude and duration of virus shedding (P < .0001) were significantly lower in vaccinated pups compared with control pups. These results demonstrate that the CIV vaccine used in this study provides protection against virulent CIV challenge in dogs.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antigens, Viral / analysis
  • Dog Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Dogs
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests / veterinary
  • Immunohistochemistry / veterinary
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype / isolation & purification
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / standards*
  • Lung / pathology
  • Lung / virology
  • Male
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / pathology
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / veterinary*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / standards
  • Virus Shedding


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Antigens, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated