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, 18 (2), 247-63

The Ty1-copia Families SALIRE and Cotzilla Populating the Beta Vulgaris Genome Show Remarkable Differences in Abundance, Chromosomal Distribution, and Age

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The Ty1-copia Families SALIRE and Cotzilla Populating the Beta Vulgaris Genome Show Remarkable Differences in Abundance, Chromosomal Distribution, and Age

Beatrice Weber et al. Chromosome Res.

Abstract

Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are major components of plant genomes influencing genome size and evolution. Using two separate approaches, we identified the Ty1-copia retrotransposon families Cotzilla and SALIRE in the Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) genome. While SALIRE elements are similar to typical Ty1-copia retrotransposons, Cotzilla elements belong to a lineage called Sireviruses. Hallmarks of Cotzilla retrotransposons are the existence of an additional putative env-like open reading frame upstream of the 3'LTR, an extended gag region, and a frameshift separating the gag and pol genes. Detected in a c ( 0 ) t-1 DNA library, Cotzilla elements belong to the most abundant retrotransposon families in B. vulgaris and are relatively homogenous and evolutionarily young. In contrast, the SALIRE family has relatively few copies, is diverged, and most likely ancient. As revealed by fluorescent in situ hybridization, SALIRE elements target predominantly gene-rich euchromatic regions, while Cotzilla retrotransposons are abundant in the intercalary and pericentromeric heterochromatin. The analysis of two retrotransposons from the same subclass contrasting in abundance, age, sequence diversity, and localization gives insight in the heterogeneity of LTR retrotransposons populating a plant genome.

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