Echo-time independent signal modulations for strongly coupled systems in triple echo localization schemes: an extension of S-PRESS editing

J Magn Reson. 2010 Mar;203(1):108-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jmr.2009.12.006. Epub 2009 Dec 29.


The double spin-echo point resolved spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) is a widely used method and standard in clinical MR spectroscopy. Existence of important J-modulations at constant echo times, depending on the temporal delays between the rf-pulses, have been demonstrated recently for strongly coupled spin systems and were exploited for difference editing, removing singlets from the spectrum (strong-coupling PRESS, S-PRESS). A drawback of this method for in vivo applications is that large signal modulations needed for difference editing occur only at relatively long echo times. In this work we demonstrate that, by simply adding a third refocusing pulse (3S-PRESS), difference editing becomes possible at substantially shorter echo times while, as applied to citrate, more favorable lineshapes can be obtained. For the example of an AB system an analytical description of the MR signal, obtained with this triple refocusing sequence (3S-PRESS), is provided.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms*
  • Calibration
  • Citrates / chemistry
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular / methods*
  • Prostate / chemistry


  • Citrates