Euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy (EO) is an ophthalmic disorder without persistent hyperthyroidism. To elucidate genetic differences among EO, Graves' disease (Gr) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (H), we analysed HLA-A, B, C, DR, DQ, D and DP types in 23 Japanese EO patients, 88 Gr patients, 46 H patients and 186 control subjects utilizing assays of lymphocyte cytotoxicity and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). When compared with the control subjects, EO patients showed significant associations with HLA B40 (w61), DR9, DQw3, and Dw15 (P less than 0.01) and with HLA B12 and Cw1 (P less than 0.05). When allowance was made for the number of antigens tested, only DQw3 was significant. Significant differences were found between EO and Gr (DPw2), and between EO and H (Cw1) even after correction of P values. Comparisons between EO and related subgroups of Gr confirmed the heterogeneity of EO again. It is concluded from these results that EO is associated with different HLA types from Gr and H.