Neurosteroid biosynthetic pathways changes in prefrontal cortex in Alzheimer's disease

Neurobiol Aging. 2011 Nov;32(11):1964-76. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.12.014. Epub 2009 Dec 31.


Expression of the genes for enzymes involved in neurosteroid biosynthesis was studied in human prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n=49). Quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) revealed that mRNA levels of diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI), which is involved in the first step of steroidogenesis and in GABAergic transmission, were increased, as were mRNA levels for several neurosteroid biosynthetic enzymes. Aromatase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1) and aldo-keto reductase 1C2 (AKR1C2), were all increased in the late stages of AD. Several GABA-A subunits were significantly reduced in AD. Increased expression of aromatase in the PFC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and was found to be localized predominantly in astrocytes. These data suggest a role for estrogens and allopregnanolone produced by astrocytes in the PFC in AD, possibly as part of a rescue program. The reduced gene expression of some synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA-A subunits may indicate a deficit of modulation of GABA-A receptors by neuroactive steroids, which may contribute to the neuropsychiatric characteristics of this disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / enzymology*
  • Diazepam Binding Inhibitor / genetics
  • Diazepam Binding Inhibitor / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / biosynthesis*
  • Prefrontal Cortex / enzymology*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Receptors, GABA-A / genetics
  • Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism


  • Diazepam Binding Inhibitor
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, GABA-A