22q11.2 microduplication in two patients with bladder exstrophy and hearing impairment

Eur J Med Genet. Mar-Apr 2010;53(2):61-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.11.004. Epub 2010 Jan 4.


Bladder exstrophy is a congenital malformation of the bladder and urethra. The genetic basis of this malformation is unknown however it is well known that chromosomal aberrations can lead to defects in organ development. A few bladder exstrophy patients have been described to carry chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal rearrangements of 22q11.2 are implicated in several genomic disorders i.e. DiGeorge/velocardiofacial- and cat-eye syndrome. Deletions within this chromosomal region are relatively common while duplications of 22q11.2 are much less frequently observed. An increasing number of reports of microduplications of this region describe a highly variable phenotype. We have performed array-CGH analysis of 36 Swedish bladder exstrophy patients. The analysis revealed a similar and approximately 3 Mb duplication, consistent with the recently described 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome, in two unrelated cases with bladder exstrophy and hearing impairment. This finding was confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and FISH analysis. Subsequent MLPA analysis of this chromosomal region in 33 bladder exstrophy patients did not reveal any deletion/duplication within this region. MLPA analysis of 171 anonymous control individuals revealed one individual carrying this microduplication. This is the first report of 22q11.2 microduplication associated with bladder exstrophy and hearing impairment. Furthermore the finding of one carrier among a cohort of normal controls further highlights the variable phenotype linked to this microduplication syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bladder Exstrophy / genetics*
  • Chromosomes / ultrastructure
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22*
  • Comparative Genomic Hybridization
  • Female
  • Gene Duplication*
  • Hearing Loss / genetics*
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Male
  • Molecular Probe Techniques
  • Phenotype
  • Sweden
  • Syndrome