Gout, a disease recognized since antiquity, has increased in prevalence in recent years and the clinical profile of this disease has become increasingly complex, owing to large numbers of cases with iatrogenic factors, multiple comorbidities, advanced age, and hyperuricemia and arthritis refractory to treatment. In this Review, key advances in gout research made during the past decade are summarized. Revised strategies for safe and effective employment of dietary measures and pharmacologic treatments for active gouty arthritis, prevention of gout flares and urate lowering are also reviewed, with an emphasis on dosing of colchicine and allopurinol, and the evidence-based approach to systemic glucocorticosteroid treatment of acute gout. Also discussed are new and emerging treatments for gout and hyperuricemia, and the potential influence of dual energy CT imaging on treatment. In this context, the therapeutic role of febuxostat, and clinical development of pegylated uricase urate-lowering therapy and interleukin 1 antagonism for gouty inflammation are reviewed. Collectively, novel approaches will hopefully lead to improved management of hyperuricemia and gout, and also to improvements in patient-centered outcomes, even for those who have previously failed to respond to treatment.