We determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire genome of a diazotrophic endophyte, Azospirillum sp. B510. Strain B510 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from stems of rice plants (Oryza sativa cv. Nipponbare). The genome of B510 consisted of a single chromosome (3,311,395 bp) and six plasmids, designated as pAB510a (1,455,109 bp), pAB510b (723,779 bp), pAB510c (681,723 bp), pAB510d (628,837 bp), pAB510e (537,299 bp), and pAB510f (261,596 bp). The chromosome bears 2893 potential protein-encoding genes, two sets of rRNA gene clusters (rrns), and 45 tRNA genes representing 37 tRNA species. The genomes of the six plasmids contained a total of 3416 protein-encoding genes, seven sets of rrns, and 34 tRNAs representing 19 tRNA species. Eight genes for plasmid-specific tRNA species are located on either pAB510a or pAB510d. Two out of eight genomic islands are inserted in the plasmids, pAB510b and pAB510e, and one of the islands is inserted into trnfM-CAU in the rrn located on pAB510e. Genes other than the nif gene cluster that are involved in N(2) fixation and are homologues of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 include fixABCX, fixNOQP, fixHIS, fixG, and fixLJK. Three putative plant hormone-related genes encoding tryptophan 2-monooxytenase (iaaM) and indole-3-acetaldehyde hydrolase (iaaH), which are involved in IAA biosynthesis, and ACC deaminase (acdS), which reduces ethylene levels, were identified. Multiple gene-clusters for tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic-transport systems and a diverse set of malic enzymes were identified, suggesting that B510 utilizes C(4)-dicarboxylate during its symbiotic relationship with the host plant.