Microdermabrasion is a popular technique used in the treatment of several skin problems, including acne, acne scarring, striae distensae, and photoaging. This article will review the relevant literature and use an evidence-based approach to evaluate the clinical efficacy of microdermabrasion in skin care. In summary, microdermabrasion appears to be a procedure that can produce changes in dermal matrix constituents and result in improvement in skin contour irregularities. It may also be beneficial in improving transepidermal delivery of certain medications. Its role in the treatment of dyschromias and acne vulgaris is limited.