Nanoparticles have been designed and applied as contrast enhancers in various optical imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging, and optical reflectance microscopy. As an emerging hybrid imaging modality, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has also benefited from the application of these nanoparticle-based contrast agents. We review this rapidly growing field and describe the applications of nanoparticles in PAI. Particular focus is given to nanoparticles whose absorption mechanism is based on surface plasmon resonance, including gold nanoshells, nanorods, and nanocages. Dye-embedded nanoparticles are also reviewed. Specifically, the design and application of each nanoparticle-based contrast agent in relation to the field of PAI are detailed.
(c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.