A qualitative analysis of patient-reported symptoms of anemia

Nephrol Nurs J. Nov-Dec 2009;36(6):621-4, 631-2; quiz 633.


The objective of this study was to understand how patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are on dialysis experience anemia. Methods included the re-analysis of interviews with patients with CKD on dialysis who became anemic. Transcripts were coded for symptoms or the impact of symptoms using ATLAS ti software. Patients indicated anemia was associated with decreased "energy" (79%), "tired" (76%), "shortness of breath" (72%), and "loss of strength"/"weakness" (66%). It was found that patients with CKD on dialysis indicated that anemia is associated with a symptom cluster indicating loss of energy. Anemia assessments should incorporate these words and concepts. This article provides an overview of the results of this study.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / complications
  • Anemia / physiopathology*
  • Education, Continuing
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Patients / psychology