Metabolic surgery was developed through the application and experience gained from bariatric or weight loss procedures. Much of our knowledge from the procedures comes from the study of animal models, where they have revealed anatomic feasibility, systemic physiological elements and cellular metabolic effects. The first generation of operation included the jejunoileal bypass and partial ileal bypass that led to the development of the current procedures including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, adjustable gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy. These operations carry significant metabolic benefits and can reduce the risk of diabetes, heart disease and cancer. Further insights from these animal models can reveal genetic, molecular and systemic effects that can enhance and develop the next generation of metabolic operations.
© 2009 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2009 International Association for the Study of Obesity.