Objective: To describe the successful use of extracorporeal life support in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
Design: Case report.
Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit in a freestanding quaternary children's hospital.
Patient: A 20-mo-old male with Hurler syndrome who developed respiratory failure from diffuse alveolar hemorrhage after hematopoietic stem cell transplant and was managed successfully with extracorporeal life support.
Intervention: Placement on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Measurements and main results: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a well-known complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients, with an even higher occurrence in those with Hurler syndrome. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been contraindicated traditionally in both pulmonary hemorrhage and hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. We report the successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and survival to hospital discharge in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.
Conclusion: Although the reported survival of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remains low, each patient must be evaluated for potential benefit of extracorporeal life support.