Epidemiology, pathogenesis and management of hepatitis D: update and challenges ahead

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Jan;7(1):31-40. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2009.205.


Hepatitis D is caused by infection with the hepatitis D virus (HDV) and is considered to be the most severe form of viral hepatitis in humans. Hepatitis D occurs only in individuals positive for the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) as HDV is a defective RNA viroid that requires HBsAg for transmission. At least eight different HDV genotypes have been described and each has a characteristic geographic distribution and a distinct clinical course. HDV and HBV coinfection can be associated with complex and dynamic viral dominance patterns. Chronic HDV infection leads to more severe liver disease than HBV monoinfection and is associated with accelerated fibrosis progression, earlier hepatic decompensation and an increased risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. So far, only IFN-alpha treatment has proven antiviral activity against HDV in humans and has been linked to improved long-term outcomes. Studies conducted in the past 2 years on the use of PEG-IFN-alpha show that a sustained virologic response to therapy, measured in terms of undetectable serum HDV RNA levels, can be achieved in about one quarter of patients with hepatitis D. Novel alternative treatment options including prenylation inhibitors are awaiting clinical development for use in hepatitis D.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Global Health
  • Hepatitis D* / diagnosis
  • Hepatitis D* / drug therapy
  • Hepatitis D* / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis Delta Virus / genetics
  • Humans
  • Morbidity / trends
  • RNA, Viral / analysis


  • Antiviral Agents
  • RNA, Viral