The use of evidence-based care management processes (CMPs) in physician practice is an important component of delivery-system reform.The authors used data from a 2006-2007 national study of large physician organizations-medical groups and independent practice associations (IPAs) to determine the extent to which organizations use CMPs, and to identify external (market) influences and organizational capabilities associated with CMP use. The study found that physician organizations use about half of recommended CMPs, most commonly disease registries, specially trained patient educators, and performance feedback to physicians. Physician organizations that reported participating in quality improvement programs, having a patient-centered focus, and being owned by a hospital or health maintenance organization used more CMPs. IPAs and very large medical groups used more CMPs than smaller groups. Organizations externally evaluated on quality measures used more CMPs than other organizations. These findings can inform efforts to stimulate the adoption of best practices for chronic illness care.