Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DRB1 and DQB1 represent the major type I diabetes (T1D) genetic susceptibility loci; however, other genes in the HLA region are also involved in T1D risk. We analyzed 1411 pedigrees (2865 affected individuals) from the type I diabetes genetics consortium genotyped for HLA classical loci and for 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the class III region previously shown to be associated with T1D in a subset of 886 pedigrees. Using the transmission disequilibrium test, we compared the proportion of SNP alleles transmitted from within the high-risk DR3 and DR4 haplotypes to affected offspring. Markers rs4151659 (mapping to CFB) and rs7762619 (mapping 5' of LTA) were the most strongly associated with T1D on DR3 (P=1.2 x 10(-9) and P=2 x 10(-12), respectively) and DR4 (P=4 x 10(-15) and P=8 x 10(-8), respectively) haplotypes. They remained significantly associated after stratifying individuals in analyses for B*1801, A*0101-B*0801, DPB1*0301, DPB1*0202, DPB1*0401 or DPB1*0402. Rs7762619 and rs4151659 are in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2)=0.82) with each other, but a joint analysis showed that the association for each SNP was not solely because of LD. Our data support a role for more than one locus in the class III region contributing to risk of T1D.