Immune response among patients exposed to molds

Int J Mol Sci. 2009 Dec 21;10(12):5471-84. doi: 10.3390/ijms10125471.


Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

Keywords: clinical symptoms; immune response; molds; mycotoxins.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Child
  • Environmental Exposure*
  • Environmental Illness / diagnosis*
  • Environmental Illness / immunology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Skin Tests
  • Stachybotrys / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Trichothecenes / blood
  • Trichothecenes / immunology*


  • Immunoglobulins
  • Trichothecenes