The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is one of the most important systems in cardiovascular control and in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is already a very successful drug target for the therapy of these diseases. However, angiotensins are generated not only in the plasma but also locally in tissues from precursors and substrates either locally expressed or imported from the circulation. In most areas of the brain, only locally generated angiotensins can exert effects on their receptors owing to the blood-brain barrier. Other tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems are found in cardiovascular organs such as kidney, heart, and vessels and play important roles in the function of these organs and in the deleterious actions of hypertension and diabetes on these tissues. Novel components with mostly opposite actions to the classical renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems have been described and need functional characterization to evaluate their suitability as novel drug targets.