Background: Carbonated beverages have unique properties that may potentially exacerbate gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), such as high acidity and carbonation. Cessation of carbonated beverage consumption is commonly recommended as part of lifestyle modifications for patients with GERD.
Aims: To evaluate the relationship of carbonated beverages with oesophageal pH, oesophageal motility, oesophageal damage, GERD symptoms and GERD complications.
Methods: A systematic review.
Results: Carbonated beverage consumption results in a very short decline in intra-oesophageal pH. In addition, carbonated beverages may lead to a transient reduction in lower oesophageal sphincter basal pressure. There is no evidence that carbonated beverages directly cause oesophageal damage. Carbonated beverages have not been consistently shown to cause GERD-related symptoms. Furthermore, there is no evidence that these popular drinks lead to GERD complications or oesophageal cancer.
Conclusions: Based on the currently available literature, it appears that there is no direct evidence that carbonated beverages promote or exacerbate GERD.