Several populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus, are polymorphic for the presence or absence of an inherited homogeneously staining region (HSR) in chromosome 1. The HSR consists of highly amplified DNA sequences, present in low copy numbers in the HSR- genome. A cloned HSR-derived genomic sequence detected transcripts of about 1.3 and 4.5 kb on blots of poly(A)+ RNA from liver of HSR+ mice but not from that of HSR- mice. A cDNA library was established from RNA of HSR+ mice and screened with the HSR-derived genomic clone. Positive clones were isolated and shown to be complementary to the 1.3-kb RNA species and to amplified DNA sequences in the HSR+ genome. The combined sequence of four overlapping cloned cDNAs is 959 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 208 amino acids. The pertinent gene is unidentified. No homologous sequence is stored in the EMBL data base. A stretch of 109 nucleotides at the 3' end of the 1.3-kb RNA homology region in the same genomic fragment, as indicated by hybridization data and sequence motifs resembling promoter elements. Thus, our data suggest that at least two genes or gene families are encoded in the HSR.