T Cell Responses of HIV-infected Children After Administration of Inactivated or Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Jan;26(1):51-9. doi: 10.1089/aid.2009.0163.


Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) prevents significantly more cases of influenza in immune-competent children than the trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV). We compared the T cell responses to LAIV or TIV in HIV-infected children. IFN-gamma-ELISPOT for the three vaccine-contained influenza strains, two mismatched strains, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was performed at 0, 4, and 24 weeks postimmunization in 175 HIV-infected children randomly assigned to LAIV or TIV. The contribution of CD8 T cells to the influenza-specific response (CD8-ELISPOT) was evaluated by CD8-cell depletion. CD8 T cells accounted for > or =87% of the total influenza-ELISPOT. At baseline, total influenza-ELISPOT and CD8-ELISPOT values were similar or higher in TIV compared with LAIV recipients. Four and 24 weeks after TIV, total influenza-ELISPOT and CD8-ELISPOT results were significantly lower than baseline results (p < or = 0.001). Responses to PHA also tended to decrease at 4 weeks after TIV (p = 0.06), but rebounded to baseline levels at 24 weeks. Four weeks after LAIV, total influenza-ELISPOT responses to vaccine-contained strains A H3N2 and B significantly decreased. Other ELISPOT values at 4 weeks and all values at 24 weeks were similar to the baseline values. At 4 and 24 weeks, TIV compared to LAIV administration resulted in a significantly greater decrease in influenza-specific ELISPOT values for vaccine-contained influenza A strains (p < or = 0.02). Responses to PHA also tended to decrease more in TIV recipients (p = 0.07). HIV-infected children immunized with TIV had significant and persistent decreases in ELISPOT responses to influenza. LAIV administration suppressed ELISPOT responses less. The clinical significance of these findings deserves further study.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoassay / methods
  • Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype / immunology
  • Influenza B virus / immunology
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Male
  • Time Factors
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Attenuated / immunology
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / immunology


  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Attenuated
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Interferon-gamma