Objective: We aimed to assess the parameters associated with complicated pregnancy in women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and nephropathy.
Study design: A cohort study of 46 consecutive women diagnosed with Type 1 DM with nephropathy prior to pregnancy was included during the years 2000-2007. Complicated pregnancy was defined as one or more of the following: first trimester abortion, superimposed pre-eclampsia, pre-term delivery <34 weeks, small and large for gestational age neonate, macrosomia, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and foetal loss (after 22 weeks' gestation).
Results: Overall, 31/46 (67%) had at least one pregnancy complication. Body mass index (BMI) was the only parameter with a significant difference between the groups, being higher in the women with complicated pregnancy vs. uncomplicated pregnancy (27 +/- 9 vs. 24 +/- 3, p = 0.027). On Multiple logistic regression model in which composite outcome (pregnancy complication) as the dependent variable, pre-pregnancy BMI was the only statistically significant parameter with a difference between the groups (p = 0.044). No statistical difference was found between the groups in the rate of pre-pregnancy counselling (60% vs. 67%), glycaemic control prior to pregnancy (Hba1c 7.5 vs. 7.1%), the prevalence of patients achieving desired level of glycaemic control (44% vs. 42%), weight gain during pregnancy (12.4 vs. 10.6 kg), duration of DM (18.0 vs. 19.7 years) and proportion of patients treated with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors prior to pregnancy (26 vs. 33%).
Conclusion: Overweight is associated with poor pregnancy outcome in patients with Type-1 DM and different degrees of nephropathy.