Estimation of ochratoxin A in some Turkish populations: an analysis in urine as a simple, sensitive and reliable biomarker

Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Mar;48(3):877-82. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.026. Epub 2010 Jan 6.


In this study, ochratoxin A (OTA) occurrence and level in human urine samples, collected from four different regions of Turkey was analyzed by NaHCO(3) dilution, immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection. For the repeatability of the method, RSD (%) values were found between 3.83 and 8.86, for the accuracy, the recovery values were found between 85.7% and 110.5% and limit of detection and limit of quantification of the method were measured as 0.006 and 0.018 ng mL(-1) respectively. For the analysis, first morning urine samples were collected and the results were adjusted with creatinine levels. From the total collected samples of 233 larger amounts of 83% was contaminated with OTA. Among the calculated to be OTA levels, positive sample rate, average OTA amount and the highest contamination was found in Ankara. (Positive sample rate; 90.1%, average OTA concentration; 14.34 ng g(-1) creatinine and highest OTA value; 75.60 ng g(-1) creatinine). In order to define the exposure profile of OTA in human a questionnaire was conducted among the voluntaries as well. But related to the gender, age, dietary habits, coffee consumption, smoking and alcohol habits of the volunteers, no correlation was found with the OTA exposure.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alcohol Drinking / metabolism
  • Anthropometry
  • Biomarkers
  • Carcinogens / metabolism*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Coffee
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunochemistry
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ochratoxins / urine*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Turkey
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Carcinogens
  • Coffee
  • Ochratoxins
  • ochratoxin A
  • Creatinine