Measures of postprandial wellness after single intake of two protein-carbohydrate meals

Appetite. 2010 Jun;54(3):456-64. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2009.12.014. Epub 2010 Jan 9.


The general feeling of wellness after food consumption may play an important role in regulating food intake. This exploratory study aimed at identifying and evaluating measures of such postprandial wellness, tentatively defined as subjective appreciation of life after food intake. The study had a randomized cross-over, double blind design. Twenty-one healthy men with mean age of 33 + or - 14 years received two liquid breakfasts with either high protein/low carbohydrate (HP/LC) or low protein/high carbohydrate (LP/HC) ratio on separate days with a washout period of one week in between. Subjective reports on satiety and postprandial wellness (pleasantness, satisfaction, relaxation, sleepiness, physical energy and mental alertness) were established using visual analogue scales at regular time points after consumption of the breakfasts up to 240 min. Blood concentrations of CCK, ghrelin, glucose, and insulin were determined at the same time points. The HP/LC breakfast induced higher levels of satiety and specific parameters of postprandial wellness (satisfaction, pleasantness and the pleasantness of these feelings) than the LP/HC breakfast at 3 or 4h after consumption. The corresponding higher CCK and lower ghrelin concentrations at these time points supported these subject reported changes. These results indicate that meal composition influences some parameters of postprandial wellness in line with physiological responses. Further research is warranted to confirm the observed relationships. Also the relevance for food intake behaviour remains to be established.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Cholecystokinin / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Energy Intake
  • Ghrelin / blood
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Personal Satisfaction
  • Relaxation
  • Satiation
  • Sleep


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Cholecystokinin