Vitamin d, adiposity, and calcified atherosclerotic plaque in african-americans

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Mar;95(3):1076-83. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-1797. Epub 2010 Jan 8.

Abstract

Context: Inverse associations are reported between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and visceral adiposity. The effects of vitamin D levels on atherosclerosis are unknown.

Objective: The objective of this study was to test for relationships between vitamin D, adiposity, bone density, and atherosclerosis in African-Americans.

Design: Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D, intact PTH, C-reactive protein and computed tomography-derived calcified atherosclerotic plaque (CP), bone density, and fat volumes were measured.

Setting: Examinations were performed at a single outpatient general clinical research center visit.

Subjects: Three hundred forty African-Americans with type 2 diabetes were evaluated. Mean +/- SD age was 55.6 +/- 9.6 yr, diabetes duration 10.6 +/- 8.3 yr, glomerular filtration rate 1.6 +/- 0.5 ml/sec, body mass index 35.6 +/- 8.7 kg/m(2), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration 50.4 +/- 30.5 nmol/liter.

Main outcome measure: Biomarkers were tested for association with pericardial, visceral, im, and sc adipose tissues; thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone density; and aorta, coronary, and carotid artery CP.

Results: Adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin, and glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was negatively associated with visceral adiposity (P = 0.009) and positively associated with carotid artery CP and aorta CP (P = 0.013 and 0.014, respectively) but not with coronary artery CP or bone density.

Conclusions: We confirmed an inverse association between vitamin D and visceral adiposity in African-Americans with diabetes. In addition, positive associations exist between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and aorta and carotid artery CP in African-Americans. The effects of supplementing vitamin D to raise the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level on atherosclerosis in African-Americans are unknown. Prospective trials are needed to determine the cardiovascular effects of supplemental vitamin D in this ethnic group.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adiposity / physiology*
  • Adult
  • African Americans
  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / blood*
  • Atherosclerosis / complications
  • Atherosclerosis / ethnology
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / ethnology

Substances

  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D