Endometrial cancer is one of the tumor types in which either chromosomal instability (CIN) or microsatellite instability (MSI) may occur. It is known to possess mutations frequently in the Ras-PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase) pathway. We performed a comprehensive genomic survey in 31 endometrial carcinomas with paired DNA for chromosomal imbalances (25 by the 50K and 6 by the 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array), and screened 25 of the 31 samples for MSI status and mutational status in the Ras-PI3K pathway genes. We detected five or more copy number changes (classified as CIN-extensive) in 9 (29%), 1 to 4 changes (CIN-intermediate) in 17 (55%) and no changes (CIN-negative) in 5 (16%) tumors. Positive MSI was less common in CIN-extensive tumors (14%), compared with CIN-intermediate/negative tumors (50%), and multivariate analysis showed that CIN-extensive is an independent poor prognostic factor. SNP array analysis unveiled copy number neutral LOH at 54 loci in 13 tumors (42%), including four at the locus of PTEN. In addition to eight (26%) tumors with PTEN deletions, we detected chromosomal imbalances of NF1, K-Ras and PIK3CA in four (13%), four (13%) and six (19%) tumors, respectively. In all, 7 of the 9 CIN-extensive tumors harbor deletions in the loci of PTEN and/or NF1, whereas all the 10 MSI-positive tumors possess PTEN, PIK3CA and/or K-Ras mutations. Our results showed that genomic alterations in the Ras-PI3K pathway are remarkably widespread in endometrial carcinomas, regardless of the type of genomic instability, and suggest that the degree of CIN is a useful biomarker for prognosis in endometrial carcinomas.