A prospective survey of the short-term outcome after cholecystectomy was carried out under circumstances in which the study itself did not influence preoperative decision making or surgical procedures. Of 122 consecutive patients, 115 were evaluable. In all cases gallstones were verified preoperatively either by oral cholecystography or by ultrasonography. Follow-up study was 6-12 months postoperatively. Ninety-one patients (79.1%) reported satisfactory outcome in terms of complete relief of preoperative symptoms. Age, sex, preoperative pain characteristics, history of disease, type of surgery, histology, and complications did not predict the surgical outcome. A test for psychic vulnerability was included among preoperative data items. Psychic vulnerability was significantly associated with persisting pain irrespective of the above-mentioned factors. This suggests that psychologic factors influence the outcome after cholecystectomy with regard to pain relief.