This study reviews the clinical course of 104 consecutive patients with pulmonic valve atresia and ventricular septal (VSD) defect who were diagnosed in the first year of life and followed for a mean period of 4.95 years (range 2 days to 13.75 years). Specific attention was paid to the nature of the pulmonary blood supply and to its influence on patient outcome. Confluent pulmonary arteries supplied by a single ductus arteriosus were present in 72 patients (69%, group I), whereas 32 patients (31%, group II) had a pulmonary blood supply that was partially or exclusively dependent on systemic collateral arteries. An estimate of the probability of survival for 10 years was 69% in the entire cohort, with no different between patients in group I and group II. Definitive surgical repair was performed in 33 of 72 group I patients (46%), compared with 5 of 32 group II patients (16%). Arborization and distribution abnormalities of the pulmonary arteries as well as intrapulmonary stenoses that were exclusively present in patients with systemic collateral arteries (p less than 0.00001) accounted for the significantly lower probability of undergoing corrective surgery in group II patients.