Emerging data indicate that alterations in the expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Recent results demonstrated that sustained transgenic expression of lymphotoxin-like inducible protein that competes with glycoprotein D for binding herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells (LIGHT; TNFSF14) induced severe intestinal inflammation, suggesting a specific role of LIGHT-mediated signalling to the intestinal compartment. In order to dissect the role of LIGHT in intestinal inflammation, we used LIGHT-deficient mice in the mouse model of acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. Interestingly, LIGHT-deficient mice were characterized by strongly reduced signs of intestinal inflammation compared with wild-type mice in this experimental model. Determination of mouse LIGHT mRNA expression in colon tissues of wild-type mice revealed a strong induction of mouse LIGHT mRNA expression during acute DSS-induced colitis. We therefore generated anti-mouse LIGHT monoclonal antibodies in LIGHT-deficient mice which bind specifically to LIGHT and are capable of neutralizing the activity of LIGHT in vitro and in vivo. With these antibodies, we demonstrated that neutralization of LIGHT during acute DSS-induced colitis resulted in reduced signs of intestinal inflammation. These data suggest that LIGHT is an important mediator in intestinal inflammation and may serve as a new target for therapeutic intervention.