Differential effects of cream, glucose, and orange juice on inflammation, endotoxin, and the expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3

Diabetes Care. 2010 May;33(5):991-7. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1630. Epub 2010 Jan 12.


Objective: We have recently shown that a high-fat high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meal induces an increase in plasma concentrations of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and the expression of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) and suppresser of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in mononuclear cells (MNCs) in addition to oxidative stress and cellular inflammation. Saturated fat and carbohydrates, components of the HFHC meal, known to induce oxidative stress and inflammation, also induce an increase in LPS, TLR-4, and SOCS3.

Research design and methods: Fasting normal subjects were given 300-calorie drinks of either glucose, saturated fat as cream, orange juice, or only water to ingest. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 1, 3, and 5 h for analysis.

Results: Indexes of inflammation including nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding, and the expression of SOCS3, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin (IL)-1beta in MNCs, increased significantly after glucose and cream intake, but TLR-4 expression and plasma LPS concentrations increased only after cream intake. The intake of orange juice or water did not induce any change in any of the indexes measured.

Conclusions: Although both glucose and cream induce NF-kappaB binding and an increase in the expression of SOCS3, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in MNCs, only cream caused an increase in LPS concentration and TLR-4 expression. Equicaloric amounts of orange juice or water did not induce a change in any of these indexes. These changes are relevant to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and insulin resistance.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Carrier Proteins / blood
  • Citrus sinensis*
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / blood
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / blood
  • Glucose / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Insulin / blood
  • Lipopolysaccharides / blood
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk*
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / immunology
  • Postprandial Period / immunology
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Reference Values
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins / genetics
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins / metabolism*
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / genetics
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4 / metabolism*


  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • Blood Glucose
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cytokines
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Insulin
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • NF-kappa B
  • RNA, Messenger
  • SOCS3 protein, human
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • TLR4 protein, human
  • Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • lipopolysaccharide-binding protein
  • Glucose