Cancer incidence was studied among 6,144 male foundry workers who were invited to participate in either of two Danish national silicosis surveys conducted during 1967-1969 and 1972-1974. Cancer incidence was followed through to the end of 1985 by computerized linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on incidence rates for the Danish population. For the entire cohort, significantly elevated SMRs were seen for all cancers (SMR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.18) and lung cancer (SMR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.12-1.51), and SMRs were at the borderline of statistical significance for bladder cancer (SMR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97-1.59). Excess lung and bladder cancer risk were confined to workers who had worked in foundries for at least 20 y. There was a positive correlation between silicosis prevalence in employees at the foundries at the time of the x-ray examinations and lung cancer incidence during the follow-up period. Squamous cell carcinomas, anaplastic carcinomas, and other lung cancers accounted for the excess lung cancer risk, whereas there was not excess risk among the foundry workers for adenocarcinomas of the lung.